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General Publications Policies | General Style Guidelines | General Submission Guidelines |
Reference Formats

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General Publications Policies


  • All copyright inheres in the author(s).
  • Posting of Occasional or Popular Papers online must be authorised by the author(s).
  • The SCL is not in a position to pay authors, editors or reviewers.
  • Authors have the right to request that their submissions not be reviewed by specific persons.


  • The SCL will not review papers which are currently under consideration by other journals or publications.
  • The SCL will not normally review papers which have been previously published elsewhere.
  • Papers should generally be no more than 8,000 words in length (excluding tables, figures and references).

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General Style Guidelines

  • The Chicago Manual of Style , 15 th edition, is the style guide for SCL publications. (Style B is generally the preferred basic style (see chapter 16 of the CMS .)

  • English spelling should normally be CARICOM/Commonwealth/British, but can be American, and should be consistent throughout the text.

  • For Popular Papers, footnotes should be avoided in favour of endnotes, numbered consecutively in the text and grouped together at the end of the article. For Occasional Papers, footnotes should be used.

  • Tables and figures should be numbered in arabic numerals (Table 1, Table 2... Figure 1, Figure 2...) and submitted each on a separate page in PDF format, with an appropriate title. Indicate their approximate position in the body of the text.
  • References should be set out in alphabetical order of the (first) author's surname in a list at the end of the article. (See the appendix for examples of reference format.)

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General Submission Guidelines

  • By preference, all submissions should be made electronically, by e-mail attachment, in Word format. Graphics, tables, figures, etc. should be sent in PDF format in separate files. Submissions should be sent to the Publications Officer <> and copied to the Secretary-Treasurer <>.
  • All electronic documents (Word and Acrobat) should be saved with the author's name and month of submission included, e.g. SCL_OP_Submission_Carrington_Mar_05.doc for Word files or .pdf for Acrobat files.

  • For phonetic fonts, contributors are encouraged to use either the Doulos SIL font (downloadable from ) or the Lucida Sans Unicode font (available on most systems). If the file includes any special fonts or formats, please check with the SCL Publications Officer <> regarding the best way to handle this prior to submission.

  • If not available electronically, four (4) clearly legible copies of the article must be submitted. Articles should be typed, double-spaced, with ample left- and right-hand margins, on one side of the paper only, with every page numbered consecutively. Normally, such submissions will not be returned to the author.

  • In all cases, TWO title pages should be submitted.
  • a full title page giving the complete title of the paper, the author's/authors' names and full addresses, including e-mail, indication of the main contact author, a short version of the title (maximum 45 characters) for the paper's running title, a biographical statement of not more than 50 words, and the total number of words in the paper (excluding graphics, tables, references).

  • a blank cover page giving only the complete title of the paper, and the total number of words. This is to be sent to the reviewers.

  • Authors should realise that although our policy is two-way anonymous review, it may be possible for reviewers to recognize the author from having heard the submission as a conference presentation, etc. Authors may wish to take precautions to avoid textual references which would identify themselves to the referees. In such cases, the authors of accepted papers will have the opportunity to include any such omitted material before the paper is published. Any reviewer may decline to review a particular manuscript.

  • An abstract in English must be included. This should not exceed 200 words, and should not contain any references. If desired, the author may provide abstracts in additional language(s), including the language under analysis.

  • The author of a paper accepted for publication will receive a summary of the reviews of the paper, as well as a list of recommended changes where necessary. The Track Changes tool in Word should be used to indicate all final changes made by the author in response to recommendations received.

  • The author of an article accepted for publication will normally receive page proofs electronically for final review. Note that this stage must not be used as an opportunity to “revise” the paper, as extensive changes are costly and cause delays.
  • There are no page charges for authors. Each author will receive ten (10) copies of the Occasional or Popular Paper, free of charge, or three (3) copies of a book.

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Reference Formats

1. In-Text References

References in the text of an article should always be by the author's last name and year of publication, e.g.:

  • Carrington (1993) in a paper on the continuum...
  • As Carrington (1993, 34) notes.... ( Note use of comma before page numbers. )
  • As several researchers have noted (Carrington 1972, 1993; Rickford 1987a)... ( Note lack of comma between author name and date. )
  • Evidence is provided by Carrington (1972, 1993)...
  • Further evidence is provided by Carrington (1972, 1993), Le Page and Tabouret-Keller (1983), Rickford (1987a) and Winford (1982). ( Note alphabetical order of authors, and commas between works. )
  • Further evidence is provided by a number of studies (Carrington 1972, 1993; Le Page & Tabouret-Keller 1983; Rickford 1987a; Winford 1982). ( Note alphabetical order of authors, commas between works, semi-colons between authors, and use of the ampersand '&' for multiple authors since the reference is between parentheses. )

2. End References

Authors are requested to check the following points particularly carefully before submitting manuscripts:

  • Are all the references in the Reference list cited in the text?
  • Do all the citations in the text appear in the Reference list?
  • Do the dates in the text and the Reference list correspond?
  • Do the spellings of authors' names in text and Reference list correspond?
  • Are journal references complete with volume and page numbers?
  • Are articles in edited volumes complete with page numbers?
  • Are references to books complete with place and date of publication and the name of the publisher?

Typical examples of references are shown below. In anomalous cases, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style , 15th edition for further information, or the SCL Publications Officer <> .


Cassidy, F.G. and R. Le Page. 1967. Dictionary of Jamaican English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cassidy, F.G. and R. Le Page. 1980 [1967]. Dictionary of Jamaican English. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Runmouth, B.S. 2001. Insults in Caribbean Creoles . London: Extreme Press.

Smith, F. 2002. Creole Recitations: John Jacob Thomas and Colonial Formation in the Late Nineteenth-Century Caribbean. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.

Syncope, A. and B. Apocope, eds. 1992. Cutting Words . London: Brief & Short.

Book Chapters

Fix, M. 1999. The case for case. In What's the Matter with Declensions? edited by A.L.P. Brimstone and R.N. Treacle, 54—78. New York: Disgruntled and Peeved Bros.

Simmons-McDonald, H. 2001. Competence, proficiency and language acquisition in Caribbean contexts. In Due Respect: Papers on English and English-Related Creoles in the Caribbean in Honour of Professor Robert Le Page , edited by P. Christie, 37—60). Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.

Whistler, J., R. Sabino and C. Wren. 2001. Phonological correlates of pidgins and pigeons. In Sounds Unlikely , edited by D. Bird and A. Eagle, 34—78. New York: Audubon Society/Wingdale Press.

Edited Volumes
Voorhoeve, J. and U.M. Lichtveld, eds. 1975. Creole Drum: An Anthology of Creole Literature in Surinam. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Journal Articles

Anthony, Marc and Q. Cleopatra. 1866. A report on a little-known theory of pidgin genesis: An Egyptian example. Journal of Antiquities and Philology , 13 (3/4): 45—78.

Pato-Pato, G. G. 2002. Reduplication in many, many languages. Journal of Repetitious Results , 45 (2): 34—56.

Rivera-Castillo, Y. and L. Pickering. 2004. Phonetic correlates of stress and tone in a mixed system. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages , 19(2): 261—284.

Articles in Newspapers and Magazines
Another way of speaking. Antigua News , 22 April:B2.

The International Enquirer . 1996. New evidence: Speaking Creole does not destroy your brain. 12 August: 10.

Taylor, K.T. 2004. Is how we speaking. Herald . [Grenada], 12 September:A6.


Bobcat, R. 2003. Feline contributions to linguistics. Online documents at URL < http://www.feline-linguistics.reports > (accessed 24 May 2004).

Boonton, R. 2003. Creole contributions to linguistics. Online documents at URL < http://www.creoleling-linguistics.reports/html > (accessed 24 May 2004)

Canine contributions to linguistics. Online documents at URL < http://www.canine-linguistics.reports > (accessed 24 May 2004).


Elkins, A. and P. Barrett-Smith. 2001. Current newspaper practices in creole representation. LRE Report No. 4. Bridgetown: Caribbean Institute for Research on Language.

Likely, N.B. 1997. A guide for radio announcers in Creole programming. Institute for Serious Social Research, St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago.

Ministry of Education, Government of Trinidad & Tobago. 1984. Schools in Rural Areas . Vol. II. Port-of-Spain: GPO.

Zephyr, A. and A. Borealis. 1987. Climatic change in magnetic poles: A catalyst for linguistic change? 16 th Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Evolution. CMDS 456. London: HMSO.

Unpublished Material

Bunker, D. 2001. Another creole genesis theory bites the dust: The relevance of Esperanto. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Europe, The Hague.

Cobham-Sander, C.R. 1982. The Creative Writer and West Indian Society: Jamaica 1900-1950. Ph.D. dissertation, University of St. Andrews.

Dickens, C. 1876. A note on creolisms in my novels. Unpublished manuscript, British Museum CD187—198, Box 4, Folder 6.

Oates, C. 1876. A note on creolisms. Unpublished manuscript, British Museum CD187-198, Box 4, Folder 6.

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